Artillery in Canada (7) New Brunswick: 5 Canadian Division Support Base (5 CDSB) Gagetown, New Brunswick Military History Museum (NBMHM)
Artillery preserved in New Brunswick, 5 Canadian Division Support Base Gagetown, New Brunswick Military History Museum
Artillerie préservée au Nouveau-Brunswick, Base de soutien de la 5 Division du Canada Gagetown, Musée d'histoire militaire du Nouveau-Brunswick
The aim of this web page is to locate, identify and document every historical piece of artillery preserved 5 CDSB Gagetown. Many contributors have assisted in the hunt for these guns to provide and update the data found on these web pages. Photos are by the author unless otherwise credited. Any errors found here are by the author, and any additions, corrections or amendments to this list of Guns and Artillery in Canada would be most welcome and may be e-mailed to the author at email@example.com.
For all official data concerning the Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery, please click on the link to their website:
Note: Back in the day, artillery in Canada was referred to by its radio call sign "Sheldrake". It is now referred to by its "Golf" call sign. (Acorn sends)
Le but de cette page Web est de localiser, d'identifier et de documenter chaque pièce d'artillerie historique préservée 5 CDSB Gagetown. De nombreux contributeurs ont aidé à la recherche de ces armes à feu pour fournir et mettre à jour les données trouvées sur ces pages Web. Les photos sont de l'auteur, sauf indication contraire. Toutes les erreurs trouvées ici sont de l'auteur, et tout ajout, correction ou amendement à cette liste d'armes à feu et d'artillerie au Canada serait le bienvenu et peut être envoyé par courriel à l'auteur à firstname.lastname@example.org.
Une traduction au français pour l'information technique présente serait grandement apprécié. Vos corrections, changements et suggestions sont les bienvenus, et peuvent être envoyés au email@example.com.
Guns and Cannon
Those of us with an interest in old guns and cannon generally have to sort them out by size and purpose. If the weapon can be transported by manpower alone, and if it relies on direct hits to kill, then it is classed as a gun. If it takes more than one gunner to operate and is too heavy to be transported by manpower alone, and if its main purpose is to kill via shrapnel or concussion or to destroy obstacles, then it is a cannon. Even when they are not in action against a target that can shoot back, they can be extremely dangerous, particularly when at sea.
Armes à feu et canon
Ceux d'entre nous qui s'intéressent aux vieilles armes à feu et aux canons doivent généralement les trier par taille et par objectif. Si
l'arme peut être transportée uniquement par la main-d'œuvre et si elle repose sur des coups directs pour tuer, elle est alors classée
comme une arme à feu. S'il faut plus d'un tireur pour opérer et qu'il est trop lourd pour être transporté par la main-d'œuvre seule, et si
son objectif principal est de tuer par shrapnel ou commotion cérébrale ou de détruire des obstacles, alors c'est un canon. Même
lorsqu'ils ne sont pas en action contre une cible qui peut riposter, ils peuvent être extrêmement dangereux, en particulier en mer.
Diagram of Artillery and Armoured Fighting Vehicles on display around 5 CDSB Gagetown.
Artillery on display at the New Brunswick Military History Museum
Cast Iron 12-pounder 6-cwt Smoothbore Muzzleloading Carronade with a Blomefield pattern breeching ring, mounted on a wooden carriage, inside the museum. The carronade is a short smoothbore, cast iron cannon, which was used by the Royal Navy and first produced by the Carron Company, an ironworks in Falkirk, Scotland. It was used from the 1770s to the 1850s. Its main function was to serve as a powerful, short-range anti-ship and anti-crew weapon. While considered very successful early on, carronades eventually disappeared as rifled naval artillery changed the shape of the shell and led to fewer and fewer close-range engagements.
9-pounder 8-cwt Muzzleloading Rifle, weight 8-1-4 (928 lbs), RGF No. 23, 1870 on the left trunnion, Firth Steel 1580 on the muzzle, W arrow D, R.C.D. 1877, No. 459, I, stamped on the iron carriage with wood wheels. Inside the museum.
Hispano-Suiza 20-mm M1079 Mk. V Cannon, Spitfire wing gun (usually one of four) inside the museum. This gun is on loan from the Canadian War Museum.
German Second World War 7.92-mm MG 81Z twin/paired (four-barreled) machine-guns with a single trigger pistol grip, (Serial Nos. 52108, 52137, 52138, & 64127), New Brunswick Military History Museum, 5 CDSB Gagetown, New Brunswick. This is a special double twin-mount MG 81Z (the Z suffix stands for Zwilling, meaning "twin") that was introduced for the Luftwaffe in 1942. It paired up two of the weapons on one mount to provide even more firepower with a maximum rate of fire of 3200 rounds/minute without requiring much more space than a standard machine gun. The MG 81Z was found in many unique installations in Luftwaffe combat aircraft, like this twin pair of MG 81Z (for a total of four guns) installed in the air defences of the Dornier Do 217. It was technically designated R19 (R for Rüstsatz) as a factory designed field conversion/upgrade kit. (Wikipedia)
Captured Dornier Do 217M, RAF AM107, 6158, with MG arrangement. (RAF Photos)
German Second World War Madsen 20-mm Anti-Aircraft Machine Cannon M/38, (Serial Nr. 168), inside the museum. This is a Danish Gun manufactured during the German occupation of Denmark during the Second World War.
(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3607578)
Oerlikon 20-mm/70 Light Anti-Aircraft Gun being manned by Canadian gunners on the roof of the Canadian Military Headquarters (CMHQ), London, England, ca 1942.
Oerlikon 20-mm/70 Light Anti-Aircraft Gun, inside the museum.
(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3516225)
Oerlikon 20-mm/70 Light Anti-Aircraft Gun manned by a soldier of the Saskatoon Light Infantry (MG), Spinazzola, Italy, 1 Oct 1943.
(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3524610)
Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada, B Company mortar crew firing at target, left to right: Ptes. Al Keep, Bill Hart and Len Rundvall, Groesbeek, Netherlands, 3 Feb 1945.
3-inch Mortar, Essex Scottish Regiment, Groesbeek, Netherlands, 24 Jan 1945. (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3524605)
3-inch Mortar, L/C 739, inside the museum.
(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3559777)
40-mm Bofors AA gun ammo being placed in the auto-loader, 12 Dec 1952.
40-mm Bofors Light Anti-Aircraft Gun in a Naval gun mount, 1945, outside the front entrance of the museum. This Bofors came from HMCS Bonaventure, Canada’s last Aircraft carrier.
40-mm Bofors Light Anti-Aircraft Gun in a Naval gun mount, 1945, outside the front entrance of the museum.
American 90-mm M1A1 Anti-Aircraft Gun, South Gate.
American 90-mm M1A1 Anti-Aircraft Gun, inside the Main Gate.
75-mm M20 Recoilless Rifle, inside the museum.
106-mm M40A1 Recoilless Rifle. Canadian anti-tank gunners taking part in live fire ranges at Sennelager Germany. Guardsmen Thos. Kinney and Jim Kidd ready the 106mm Recoiless Rifle M40. Both are members of the 1st Battalion, Canadian Guards serving in Germany with the 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade Group. (DND Photo)
106-mm M40A1 Recoilless Rifle, inside the museum.
106-mm M40A1 Recoilless Rifle mounted on an M38A1 CDN3 Jeep.
106-mm M40 recoilless rifle is a portable anti-tank weapon that could also be used in an anti-personnel role with the use of an anti-personnel tracer flechette round. The bore was commonly described as being 106-mm but is in fact 105-mm. The 106-mm designation was intended to prevent confusion with incompatible 105-mm ammunition from the M27.
The air-cooled, breech-loaded, single-shot rifle fired fixed ammunition and was used primarily from a jeep or M113 APC in Canadian service. It was designed for direct firing only, and sighting equipment for this purpose was furnished with each weapon, including an affixed spotting rifle.
106-mm M40A1 Recoilless Rifle mounted on an M38A1 CDN3 Jeep, being unloaded from a transport aircraft in Cyprus in 1964.
106-mm M40A1 Recoilless Rifle mounted on a jeep, Canadian Guards, possibly in Germany, ca 1962. (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4235730)
(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4692196)
106-mm M40A1 Recoilless Rifle mounted on an M113 APC, Ex Reforger, Germany, 25 Sep 1973.
105-mm C1A1 M2A2 Howitzer, Serial No. 13166, 1945, weight 1,060 lbs, in front of the museum.
The C1/C1A1 (aka American M2A1) were made in Canada by the Quebec based Sorel gun makers. The C2 version were 88 American M2A1s that Canada bought in 1951 as an interim until Sorel could produce them. The carriages were identical but the guns were not. The Canadian Forces ran a mixed fleet until the 1980s, when there was a big overhaul program where the all the C2 were converted to C1 configuration, and thenall ref to the C2 in the inventory was deleted. Some of the C2 were disposed of before the overhaul - or not overhauled because they were to be disposed of - which accountes for a few of the guns in Canada still carrying US numbers. A few of these guns may also have American M2A2 barrels that replaced the older M2A1s during the overhaul. (Doug Knight, CWM)
105-mm L5 Pack Howitzer, (Serial No. 57656), CFR 50-34041, Sgt’s and WO’s Mess.
105-mm L5 Pack Howitzer, (Serial No. 57659), in front of the museum.
155-mm C1 (M1A2) Medium Howitzer on M1A2 Carriage, aka M114, manufactured at Sorel Industries Limited in Quebec, Queen Elizabeth II cypher. CFR 00-34411. The carriage plate reads: CARR. HOW. 155MM M1A2 CDN. SOREL INDUSTRIES LTD. CANADA 1955, REG. NO. CDN 2, INSP (symbol). This gun is located in front of the museum.
Queen Elizabeth II Royal cypher.
Queen Elizabeth II wearing the Vladimir Tiara, the Queen Victoria Jubilee Necklace, the blue Garter Riband, Badge and Garter Star and the Royal Family Orders of King George V and King George VI, photo taken in 1959. She has reigned from 6 Feb 1952 to the present day. (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4314245)
155-mm M109 Self-Propelled Howitzer, 1 RCHA, Fallex 1976, Germany. (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 4631311)
155-mm M109 Self-Propelled Howitzer, CFR 85-77247, 1985, AC: NX, ECC: 119205 HUI C: 0105, SAUI C: 0105, VMO No. DLE21802, VMO. Painted as 45B. This is the fourth vehicle on the right on the right as you enter 5 CDSB Gagetown.
5.5-inch BL Mk. III Gun on a Mk. I Carriage, Vaucelles, France 23 July 1944. (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3396146)
5.5-inch BL Mk. III Gun on a Mk. I Carriage, weight 1-14-1-0 (12,000 + 1,568 + 28 = 13,624 lbs), King George VI cypher, to be restored, currently in the NBMHM storage compound. Canada made carriages for these guns during the Second World War, and after the war acquired 85 of them for the RCA. The gun fired a 45.5-kg (100-pound) shell to a range of 14,800 metres (16,200 yards). A missing barrel for this gun has recently been sourced at CFB Edmonton, and hopefully the parts will be mated and assembled some time in the near future!
German First World War 7.92-mm Maxim Spandau MG 08/15 Machineguns carried by German Prisoners of War captured by Canadians, June 1917. (Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3403114)
German First World War 7.92-mm Maxim Spandau MG 08/15 Machinegun, (Serial Nr. 8483), J.P. Sauer & Sohn, Suhl, 1918. Museum Small Arms storage.
German First World War 7.92-mm Maxim Spandau MG 08/15 Machinegun (Serial Nr. 3729). Museum Small Arms storage.
(ONB Photo, 1915)
First World War Austro-Hungarian Army soldiers manning a 7.92-mm Schwarzlose M07.12 Machine Gun, possibly somewhere on the Russian or Serbian front. This MG is similar to one held in the NBMHM.
First World War Austro-Hungarian Army 7.92-mm Schwarzlose M07.12 MG (Serial Nr. 51192). Kulomet (Schwarzlose) VZOR 24, ZBROJOVKA ING. F. JANECEK, PRAHA. (Praha - Prague).
(Bundesarchiv, Bild 1011-310-0895-13A)
German Second World War 17-cm Kanone 18 (K18) in Mörserlafette (on a big gun carriage), in action in Italy, Feb 1944.
(Bundesarchiv, Bild 1011-554-0865-17A)
German Second World War 17-cm Kanone 18 (K18) in Mörserlafette (on a big gun carriage), in action in Tunisia, 1943.
(Library and Archives Canada Photo, MIKAN No. 3209159)
German Second World War 17-cm Kanone 18 (K18) in Mörserlafette (on a big gun carriage), abandoned in Normandy near the Seine River, 30 August 1934.
German Second World War 17-ton 17-cm Kanone 18 (K18) in Mörserlafette (on a big gun carriage), (Serial Nr. R320), 1942, bye. This gun was sent from Europe to Aberdeen in the USA on 3 Mar 1945, along with a new spare barrel, and then to Valcartier, Quebec later in 1945. It was located in the Munitions Experimental Test Centre (CEEM) at CFB Valcartier, until it was transferred to the New Brunswick Military History Museum (NBMHM), with 5 Canadian Division Support Base Gagetown, on 4 Dec 2012. Once it has been restored, it will be displayed in front of the museum.
When the K18 was in its firing position it had a weight of 17 tons+, in transport configuration, it had a weight of 23 tons. (Manfred Sommer)
The 17 cm Kanone 18 in Mörserlafette (English: 17cm Cannon 18 on Mortar Carriage), abbreviated as 17 cm K 18 in Mrs Laf was a German heavy gun used during the Second World War. The 17 cm K 18 in Mrs Laf was a 172.5 mm (6.79 in) towed gun with a barrel 50 calibres long. The 17 cm K 18in Mrs Laf shared the same box trail carriage with the 21 cm Mörser 18. The carriage allowed transport of the weapon over short distances in one piece, whilst for longer distances the barrel was removed from the carriage and transported separately. A series of ramps and winches made removing the barrel a reasonably quick task for its time, but still required several hours. For all of the gun's bulk, a full 360-degree traverse could be achieved by two men.
A notable innovation by Krupp on the 21 cm Mörser18 and the 17 cm Kanone 18 was the "double recoil" or dual-recoil carriage. The normal recoil forces were initially taken up by a conventional recoil mechanism close to the barrel, and then by a carriage sliding along rails set inside the travelling carriage. The dual-recoil mechanism absorbedall of the recoil energy with virtually no movement of the box trail upon firing, thus making for a very accurate weapon.
In 1939 the 21 cm Mörser 18 began appearing in the Wehrmacht corps-level artillery regiments, replacing the obsolescent World WarI-era 21 cm Mörser 16. The gun was able to send a 113 kg (249 lb) HE shell outto a range of 14.5 km (9 mi), but by 1941 the Wehrmacht was seeking alonger-ranged weapon and Krupp responded by producing a smaller 172.5 mm (6.79in) caliber increased-velocity weapon utilising the same carriage, with the designation Kanone 18.
The 17 cm K 18 in MrsLaf quickly impressed Germanartillery officers with its range, but the real surprise was the explosivepower of the 62.8 kg (138 lb) shell, which was little different from the 113 kg(249 lb) shell of the 21 cm Mörser 18. Production commenced in 1941. In 1942production of the 21 cm Mörser 18 was halted for almost two years so as toallow maximum production of the Kanone 18.
The 17 cm K 18 in MrsLaf was employed at the corpsand army echelons in order to provide long-range counter-battery support, aswell as filling the same basic heavy support role as the 21 cm Mörser 18, thepair becoming the most common weapons used by the Wehrmacht in this role. In 1944 some Allied batteries used captured 17 cm K 18 in MrsLafs when ammunitionsupplies for their usual guns were disrupted by the long logistical chain fromNormandy to the German border.
The 17 cm K 18 in MrsLaf was considered atechnically excellent long range artillery piece for the German Army, with excellent range and a very effective shell. The gun's greatest weaknesses werethat it was expensive to build and required careful maintenance. Additionally, it was quite slow to bring in and out of action, fairly difficult to maneuverand very slow to move off-road. Many were lost when their crews abandoned them when fleeing advancing Allied forces. (Wikipedia)
K18 guns were used in the battles in Italy in 1943 against gunners from Saint John, New Brunswick . The bye marking on the gun is the manufacturers code for HANOMAG-Hannover'sche Maschinenbau AG vorm. Georg Egestorff, Hannover. This company manufactured approximately 300 of these guns from 1941 onwards (before then, they were built by the Krupp firm). The camouflage paint for this gun was field gray.
(Bundesarchiv, Bild 146-1991-068-04 / CC-BY-SA 3.0)
Italian Cannone da 75/27 modello 06 being fired by German gunners, ca 1943.
Italian Cannone da 75/27 modello 06. (Geo.Ansaldo & C. Genova - 1916. FCA 1099, MLA 3432, KG.345) with the NBMHM.
The Cannone da 75/27 modello 06 was a field gun used by Italy during both the First and Second World Wars. It was a license-built copy of the Krupp Kanone M 1906 gun. It had seats for two crewmen attached to the gunshield as was common practice for the period. Captured weapons were designated by the Wehrmacht during the Second World War as the 7.5 cm Feldkanone 237(i). Many guns were modernized for tractor-towing with pressed-steel wheels and rubber rims. These weighed some 65 kilograms (143 lb) more than the original version with spoked wooden wheels. The gun is reported to have had a 10 km range.
Japanese 70-mm Type 92 Battalion Gun, a light howitzer introduced in 1932 (2592 in the Japanese imperial year, from where it takes its type "92"). Since every infantry battalion was equipped with two Type 92 guns, it was designated as Battalion Artillery (Daitaih?). An Imperial Japanese Army Division was equipped with eighteen Type 92 guns. One, Serial No. 2561, is on display in the NBMHM.
Japanese 70-mm Type 92 Battalion Gun
Japanese 70-mm Type 92 Battalion Gun (Serial No. 2561), inside the museum. The Type 92 Battalion Gun was a light howitzer used by the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Second World War. The Type 92 number was designated for the year the gun was accepted, 2592 in the Japanese imperial year calendar, or 1932 in the Gregorian calendar. Each infantry battalion included two Type 92 guns; therefore, the Type 92 was referred to as Battalion Artillery.
This gun was captured by members of the Royal Canadian Engineers during the assault on the Japanese positions in Alaska in 1943. It was briefly held in British Columbia before going to the Royal Canadian Artillery Museum at Camp Shilo, Manitoba. The RCA Museum loaned this gun to 2 RCHA, which was based at Camp Gagetown until July 1970, when it moved to Camp Petawawa, Ontario. The Type 92 Battalion Gun remained at Gagetown, where it is currently on display inside the NBMHM.
During the Second World War, a small Japanese force occupied the Alaskan islands of Attu and Kiska. The islands' strategic value was their ability to control Pacific transportation routes. The Japanese reasoned that control of the Aleutians would prevent a possible U.S. attack across the Northern Pacific. Similarly, the U.S. feared that the islands would be used as bases from which to carry out a full-scale aerial attack on the U.S. West Coast cities. In spite of the remoteness of the islands and the challenges of weather and terrain, a combined American and Canadian force carried out an attack on Attu on 11 May 1943. The operation was completed following a final Japanese banzai charge on 29 May 1943.
Another invasion force consisting of 34,426 troops including 5,300 Canadians (mostly from the 13th Canadian Infantry Brigade of the 6th Canadian Infantry Division), and 2,000 soldiers with the 1st Special Service Force, landed on Kiska in the wake of a sustained three-week barrage, on 15 August 1943. Although the Japanese had withdrawn from the island on 19 July, 17 American and 4 Canadian soldiers were killed by booby traps left behind by the Japanese.
Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) No. 111 Squadron and No. 14 Squadron saw active service in the Aleutian skies and scored at least one aerial kill on a Japanese aircraft. Additionally, three Canadian armed merchant cruisers and two corvettes served in the Aleutian campaign but did not encounter enemy forces.
Russian ASU-57 SP Airborne Assault Gun (Serial No. 52-P-273, NG 556), New Brunswick Military History Museum, Museum Park.
I would imagine that many of you who are reading this book are very likely familiar with the standard routine of military training exercises and the rigours of being in the field in all seasons, not to mention the conditions found on deployment these days. Whether or not you have experienced it, I am sure you can well imagine what it is like to train and work in the heat, the dust and the mosquitoes in summer, the wind, the rain and the mud in the spring and fall, the snow and the cold in the winter and of course the routine day-to-day challenges of combat exercises in the training areas of the Canadian Forces. For most in the Army, this includes CFB Gagetown, CFB Valcartier, CFB Petawawa, CFB Kingston, CFB Shilo, CFB Edmonton, CFB Wainwright, CFB Suffield and all the fields and exercise areas of LFAATC Aldershot and LFCATC Meaford and their environs.
As an Army Officer in the Canadian Forces, it has been my privilege to have served alongside a tremendous number of highly professional military men and women of our nation while taking part in training in Germany, the UK and the USA and while on operational deployments to Cyprus, Bosnia-Herzegovina and in Afghanistan. During my training and military professional development, I have learned much about our long military history. My interest in our multi-faceted historical record has led me to write about it and to seek out the stories about Canada's military servicemen and women and the tools and equipment they used to preserve our security when warclouds darkened our horizons.
As a military history enthusiast, I have learned over the years that there are many with similar interests in preserving our story. We have all seen the odd old gun or retired tank placed on display outside a Militia Drill Hall, War Memorial, city park site or Royal Canadian Legion Hall, and many will have enjoyed visiting a number of our military Museums. The vast majority of retired wartime combat equipment used by members of the CF have dwindled in number, many being scrapped, others being shot up as targets, while a few have been sold to overseas operators and collectors. Fortunately, a handful of important examples of retired CF guns and war machines have been preserved and may be found in a wide variety of locations throughout Canada.
Curators, docents and volunteers working in Canada's military museums have been successful in preserving a good number of retired military weapons of war and many are still being sought after and in some cases, being restored to running condition again. As an artist, photographer and military history enthusiast, I have attempted to keep track of where historic Canadian military equipment has survived and is presently located and to make that information available to others with the same interest. For those of like mind, the purpose of this handbook is to provide a simple checklist of the classic Great War and WWII artillery that is part of our military heritage and a location guide to where they can be found in Canada. The book includes a number of photographs to illustrate an example of each gun wherever possible, and lists the locations of the survivors by province.
The numbers of restored Canadian guns is actually increasing as a few rare examples are being recovered from scrapyards and monument sites and salvaged for restoration. (Ultra rare items such as Skink AA gun turrets come to mind). One of the aims of this book is to help an enthusiast track down these monuments and museum artefacts and to have a simple reference book on hand with more detailed information about them such as a serial number, a Museum location and contact information which might be helpful in learning a bit of the history of a particular vehicle. The guns detailed in this handbook are listed alphabetically by manufacturer, number and type in the order that they came into service with the CF. The data is also appended with a list of most of the current guns found in the various collections and Museums in Canada. The book is also meant to serve as a companion volume to "Ironsides", Canadian Tanks and Armoured Fighting Vehicle Museums and Monuments, also available online.
It is my sincere hope that more of the guns and artillery found in this list will one day be added to the record of historically important military armament survivors that have been recovered and restored.
Shelldrake can be ordered online in softcover or e-book at these bookstores:
Photos and technical data on artillery preserved in Canada may be viewed by Province on separate pages on this website.